On March 24, 2022, Utah became the fourth state in the U.S., following California, Virginia and Colorado, to enact a consumer data privacy law, the Utah Consumer Privacy Act (the “UCPA”). The UCPA resembles Virginia’s Consumer Data Protection Act (“VCDPA”) and Colorado’s Consumer Privacy Act (“CPA”), and, to a lesser extent, the California Consumer Privacy Act (as amended by the California Privacy Rights Act) (“CCPA/CPRA”). The UCPA will take effect on December 31, 2023.
The UCPA applies to a controller or processor that (1) conducts business in Utah or produces a product or service targeted to Utah residents; (2) has annual revenue of $25,000,000 or more; and (3) satisfies at least one of the following thresholds: (a) during a calendar year, controls or processes the personal data of 100,000 or more Utah residents, or (b) derives over 50% of its gross revenue from the sale of personal data, and controls or processes the personal data of 25,000 or more consumers.
As with the CPA and VCDPA, the UCPA’s protections apply only to Utah residents acting solely within their individual or household context, with an express exemption for individuals acting in an employment or commercial (B2B) context. Similar to the CPA and VCDPA, the UCPA contains exemptions for covered entities, business associates and protected health information subject to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”), and financial institutions or personal data subject to the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (“GLB”). As with the CCPA/CPRA and VCDPA, the UCPA also exempts from its application non-profit entities.
In line with the CCPA/CPRA, CPA and VCDPA, the UCPA provides Utah consumers with certain rights, including the right to access their personal data, delete their personal data, obtain a copy of their personal data in a portable manner, opt out of the “sale” of their personal data, and opt out of “targeted advertising” (as each term is defined under the law). Notably, the UCPA adopts the VCDPA’s more narrow definition of “sale,” which is limited to the exchange of personal data for monetary consideration by a controller to a third party. Unlike the CCPA/CPRA, CPA and VCDPA, the UCPA will not provide Utah consumers with the ability to correct inaccuracies in their personal data. Also unlike the CPA and VCDPA, the UCPA will not require controllers to obtain prior opt-in consent to process “sensitive data” (i.e., racial or ethnic origin, religious beliefs, sexual orientation, citizenship or immigration status, medical or health information, genetic or biometric data, or geolocation data). It will, however, require controllers to first provide consumers with clear notice and an opportunity to opt out of the processing of his or her sensitive data. With respect to the processing of personal data “concerning a known child” (under age 13), controllers must process such data in accordance with the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act. The UCPA will prohibit controllers from discriminating against consumers for exercising their rights.
In addition, the UCPA will require controllers to implement reasonable and appropriate data security measures, provide certain content in their privacy notices, and include specific language in contracts with processors.
Unlike the CCPA/CPRA, VCDPA and CPA, the UCPA will not require controllers to conduct data protection assessments prior to engaging in data processing activities that present a heightened risk of harm to consumers, or to conduct cybersecurity audits or risk assessments.
In line with existing U.S. state privacy laws, the UCPA does not provide for a private right of action. The law will be enforced by the Utah Attorney General.