On June 1, 2017, the new Cybersecurity Law went into effect in China. This post takes stock of (1) which measures have been passed so far, (2) which ones go into effect on June 1 and (3) which ones are in progress but have yet to be promulgated.
A draft implementing regulation and a draft technical guidance document on the treatment of cross-border transfers of personal information have been circulated, but at this time only the Cybersecurity Law itself and a relatively specific regulation (applicable to certain products and services used in network and information systems in relation to national security) have been finalized. As such, only the provisions of the Cybersecurity Law itself and this relatively specific regulation went into effect on June 1.
On June 1, 2017, the following obligations (among others) become legally mandatory for “network operators” and “providers of network products and services”:
- personal information protection obligations, including notice and consent requirements;
- for “network operators,” obligations to implement cybersecurity practices, such as designating personnel to be responsible for cybersecurity, and adopting contingency plans for cybersecurity incidents; and
- for “providers of network products and services,” obligations to provide security maintenance for their products or services and to adopt remedial measures in case of safety defects in their products or services.
Penalties for violating the Cybersecurity Law can vary according to the specific violation, but typically includes (1) a warning, an order to correct the violation, confiscation of illegal proceeds and/or a fine (typically ranging up to RMB 1 million); (2) personal fines for directly responsible persons (typically ranging up to RMB 100,000); and (3) in particularly serious circumstances, suspensions or shutdowns of offending websites and businesses, including revocations of operating permits and business licenses.
A final version of the draft implementing regulation and a draft technical guidance document on the treatment of cross-border transfers of personal information are forthcoming. When issued, they are expected to finalize and clarify the following prospective obligations:
- restrictions on cross-border transfers of personal information (and “important information”), including a notice and consent obligation specific to cross-border transfers; and
- procedures and standards for “security assessments,” which validate the continuation of cross-border transfers of personal information and “important information.”
The draft version of the implementing regulation on the treatment of cross-border transfers of personal information contains a grace period, under which “network operators” would not be required to comply with the cross-border transfer requirements until December 31, 2018. The final draft likely will contain a similar grace period.